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In particular, the discovery of Genie presented an opportunity to study whether a child who was past the so-called "critical period" for language acquisition could learn to speak a first language.
The case of Genie Wiley came to light on November 4, Genie was discovered by a social worker when her mother, who was partially blind, went to apply for social services.
Genie had been isolated in a small room starting at the age of 20 months until her discovery at 13 years and 9 months old.
She spent most of her time naked and tied to a potty chair where she was given limited use of her hands and feet. She was completely cut off from any kind of stimulation.
The windows were curtained and the door was kept closed. Although she lived with her father, mother, and brother, her father and brother would only bark or growl at her and her mother was only permitted very brief interactions.
If Genie made any noise, she was physically beaten. She was severely underdeveloped. She was thin and looked like a child of six or seven.
She was incontinent and mute. It appeared she never suffered from brain damage, mental disability, or autism. Therefore, the impairments and developmental delays Genie exhibited upon being assessed were the result of the isolation and deprivation she was subjected to.
Researchers would never deliberately conduct deprivation experiments with people on moral grounds. Genie soon learned basic social skills like using the toilet and dressing herself.
She was fascinated by her environment and would study it intensely. She especially enjoyed visiting places outside the hospital.
She was talented at nonverbal communication, but her ability to use language did not proceed rapidly. As a result, psychologist David Rigler decided to focus the research on Genie's language acquisition.
The discovery of Genie coincided with a debate about language acquisition in the scholarly community. Linguist Noam Chomsky, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, claimed humans are born with an innate ability to develop language.
Within the first seven months after her discovery, Genie learned many new words. She had even begun to speak but only in single words.
By July , Genie could put two words together and by November she could put together three. Genie never experienced such an explosion.
Her speech seemed to plateau at creating two to three-word strings, despite four years of additional work and research with her.
Yet, her inability to learn grammar, which Chomsky believed was key to human language, indicated that passing the critical period was detrimental to the complete acquisition of a first language.
Butler wrote that Genie could eventually tolerate fenced dogs, but that there was no progress with cats. In her journal, Butler wrote that she had gotten Genie to stop attacking herself when angry and had taught Genie to instead express her anger through words or by hitting objects.
Butler also claimed that, shortly after moving in with her, Genie had become noticeably more talkative and that she had made substantial progress with her language acquisition.
Genie's incontinence gradually improved until, by the end of her stay, she was almost entirely continent. Genie's mother continued to visit Genie, and around the time Genie moved in with Butler, Genie's mother received corrective cataract surgery which restored much of her vision.
During Genie's stay, Butler had the man she was dating move in with her, believing that authorities would view her pending foster application more favorably if she offered a two-parent home.
Researchers believed Butler had good intentions for Genie, but criticized Butler's unwillingness to work with them and thought she negatively affected Genie's care and the case study.
They strongly contested Butler's claims of pushing Genie too hard, contending that she enjoyed the tests and could take breaks at will, and both Curtiss and Kent emphatically denied Butler's accusations towards them.
In mid-August, California authorities informed Butler they had rejected her application for foster custody. Rigler maintained several times that despite the scientists' objections neither the hospital nor any of its staff had intervened, and said the authorities' decision surprised him.
In early August, Hansen suggested to Rigler that he take custody of Genie if authorities rejected Butler's application, and Rigler initially balked at the idea but decided to talk it over with his wife, Marilyn; Marilyn had graduate training as a social worker and had just completed a graduate degree in human development , and had previously worked in nursery schools and Head Start Programs.
The Riglers had three adolescent children of their own, which Jay Shurley later said made them consider themselves more suitable guardians for Genie than Butler.
Rigler acknowledged the proposed arrangement would clearly put him in a dual relationship with her, but Children's Hospital and authorities decided that, in the absence of other adequate options, they would consent to make the Riglers Genie's temporary foster parents.
On the same day Genie went back to the hospital, the Riglers had Genie transferred to their home in Los Feliz. David Rigler said that he and Marilyn initially intended the arrangement to last for a maximum of three months, but Genie ultimately stayed with them for almost four years.
While Genie lived with the Riglers her mother usually met with her once a week at a park or restaurant, and their relationship continued to grow stronger.
With the exception of Jay Shurley, who later said he felt the other scientists did not treat her as an equal, Genie's mother did not get along well with the other researchers, some of whom disliked her due to her apathy during Genie's childhood.
Jean Butler, who married shortly after authorities removed Genie from her house and began using her married name, Ruch, stayed in touch with Genie's mother.
Although Genie's mother later recalled that most of their conversations during this time were shallow in nature, they continued to get along very well.
Without any obvious cause, Genie's incontinence immediately resurfaced, and was especially severe for the first few weeks after she moved in but persisted at a lower level for several months.
They also wrote that Genie was extremely frightened of their dog, and upon seeing it for the first time she immediately ran and hid.
The research team recorded her speech being much more halting and hesitant than Ruch had described, writing that Genie very rarely spoke and that, for the first three months of her stay, almost always used one-word utterances.
She continued to have a very difficult time controlling her impulses, frequently engaging in highly anti-social and destructive behavior.
Shortly after Genie moved in, Marilyn taught her to direct her frustrations outward by generally "having a fit. Although the scientists did not yet know the reason for Genie's fear of cats and dogs the Riglers used their puppy in an effort to acclimate her, and after approximately two weeks she entirely overcame her fear of their dog but continued to be extremely afraid of unfamiliar cats and dogs.
Marilyn worked with Genie to help overcome her ongoing difficulty with chewing and swallowing, which took approximately four months.
She also tried to help Genie become more attuned to her body's sensations, and in late Curtiss recorded the first instance of Genie showing sensitivity to temperature.
At first, Genie usually did not listen to anyone unless someone directly addressed her or if Curtiss played classical music on the piano, and if someone spoke to her she almost never acknowledged the other person and usually walked away after a while.
After that, she paid attention to people even when they were not speaking directly to or about her. She became somewhat more sociable in her interactions with people and became somewhat more responsive, although she still frequently showed no obvious signs that she heard someone.
After several months living with the Riglers, Genie's behavior and social skills improved to the point that she started going to first a nursery school and then a public school for mentally retarded children her age.
During the time Genie lived with the Riglers, everyone who worked with her reported that her mood significantly improved and she was clearly content with her life.
The scientists wrote that, while her overall demeanor and interactions with others had significantly improved, many aspects of her behavior remained characteristic of an unsocialized person.
Curtiss began thorough, active testing of Genie's language in October , when she and Fromkin decided that her linguistic abilities were sufficient to yield usable results.
Linguists designed their tests to measure both Genie's vocabulary and her acquisition of various aspects of grammar , including syntax , phonology , and morphology.
They also continued to observe her in everyday conversations to gauge what pragmatics of language she acquired.
The research team considered her language acquisition to be a substantial part of their larger goal of helping her to integrate herself into society, so although they wanted to observe what vocabulary and grammar Genie could learn on her own, out of a sense of obligation they sometimes stepped in to assist her.
Throughout linguists' testing, the size of Genie's vocabulary and the speed with which she expanded it continued to outstrip all anticipations.
By mid she could accurately name most objects she encountered, and clearly knew more words than she regularly used. She clearly mastered certain principles of grammar, and her receptive comprehension consistently remained significantly ahead of her production, but the rate of her grammar acquisition was far slower than normal and resulted in an unusually large disparity between her vocabulary and grammar.
In many cases, the scientists used Genie's language development to help them gauge her overall psychological state. For instance, Genie consistently confused the pronouns you and me , often saying, "Mama love you" while pointing to herself, which Curtiss attributed to a manifestation of Genie's inability to distinguish who she was from who someone else was.
At the time Genie learned to say "May I have [example]" as a ritual phrase she was also learning how to use money, and Curtiss wrote that this phrase gave Genie the ability to ask for payment and fueled her desire to make money, causing her to take a more active role in performing activities which would lead to a reward.
At the start of testing Genie's voice was still extremely high-pitched and soft, which linguists believed accounted for some of her abnormal expressive language, and the scientists worked very hard to improve it.
Despite this she consistently deleted or substituted sounds, making her extremely difficult to understand. The scientists believed Genie was often unaware of her pronunciation, but on other occasions, she produced haplologies which were clearly intentional and would only speak more clearly if firmly, explicitly requested to; Curtiss attributed the latter to Genie trying to say as little as possible and still be understood.
Papers contemporaneous with the case study indicated that Genie was learning new vocabulary and grammar throughout her entire stay with the Riglers, and were optimistic about her potential to varying degrees.
Furthermore, although she could understand and produce longer utterances, she still primarily spoke in short phrases such as "Ball belong hospital".
Curtiss and Fromkin ultimately concluded that because Genie had not learned a first language before the critical period had ended, she was unable to fully acquire a language.
Sometime during early to mid, the Riglers overheard Genie saying, "Father hit big stick. Father is angry. Father hit arm. Big wood. Genie cry Not spit.
Hit face—spit. Father hit big stick. Father hit Genie big stick. Father take piece wood hit. Father make me cry. Father is dead.
In contrast to her linguistic abilities, Genie's nonverbal communication continued to excel. She invented her own system of gestures and pantomimed certain words as she said them, and also acted out events which she could not express in language.
Throughout Genie's stay the scientists saw how frequently and effectively she used her nonverbal skills, and never determined what she did to elicit such strong reactions from other people.
Curtiss also recalled one time when, while she and Genie were walking and had stopped at a busy intersection, she unexpectedly heard a purse emptying; she turned to see a woman stop at the intersection and exit her car to give Genie a plastic purse, even though Genie had not said anything.
Starting in the fall of , under the direction of Curtiss, Victoria Fromkin, and Stephen Krashen —who was then also one of Fromkin's graduate students—linguists continued to administer regular dichotic listening tests to Genie until Their results consistently corroborated the initial findings of Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima.
Linguists also administered several brain exams specifically geared towards measuring Genie's language comprehension. On one such test, she had no difficulty giving the correct meaning of sentences containing familiar homophones , demonstrating that her receptive comprehension was significantly better than her expressive language.
Genie also did very well at identifying rhymes , both tasks that adult split-brain and left hemispherectomy patients had previously been recorded performing well on.
Curtiss, Fromkin, and Krashen continued to measure Genie's mental age through a variety of measures, and she consistently showed an extremely high degree of scatter.
She measured significantly higher on tests which did not require language, such as the Leiter Scale, than on tests with any kind of language component, such as the verbal section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.
For these they primarily used tachistoscopic tests, and during and they also gave her a series of evoked response tests. As early as Genie scored between the level of an 8-year-old and an adult on all right-hemisphere tasks the scientists tested her on and showed extraordinarily rapid improvement on them.
Her ability to piece together objects solely from tactile information was exceptionally good, and on spatial awareness tests her scores were reportedly the highest ever recorded.
Genie's performance on these tests led the scientists to believe that her brain had lateralized and that her right hemisphere had undergone specialization.
Because Genie's performance was so high on such a wide variety of tasks predominantly utilizing the right hemisphere of her brain, they concluded her exceptional abilities extended to typical right-hemisphere functions in general and were not specific to any individual task.
While even this had been extremely minimal it had been enough to commence lateralization in her right hemisphere, and the severe imbalance in stimulation caused her right hemisphere to become extraordinarily developed.
By contrast, Genie performed significantly below average and showed much slower progress on all tests measuring predominantly left-hemisphere tasks.
There were a few primarily right hemisphere tasks Genie did not perform well on. On one memory for design test, she scored at a "borderline" level in October , although she did not make the mistakes typical of patients with brain damage.
In addition, on a Benton Visual Retention Test and an associated facial recognition test Genie's scores were far lower than any average scores for people without brain damage.
On several occasions during the course of the case study, the NIMH voiced misgivings about the lack of scientific data researchers generated from the case study and the disorganized state of project records.
Outside of the linguistics aspect of research David Rigler did not clearly define any parameters for the scope of the study, and both the extremely high volume and incoherence of the research team's data left the scientists unable to determine the importance of much of the information they collected.
In a unanimous decision, the committee denied the extension request, cutting off further funding. In , when Genie turned 18, her mother stated that she wanted to care for her, and in mid the Riglers decided to end their foster parenting and agreed to let Genie move back in with her mother at her childhood home.
She then contacted the California Department of Health to find care for Genie, which David Rigler said she did without his or Marilyn's knowledge, and in the latter part of authorities transferred Genie to the first of what would become a succession of foster homes.
The environment in Genie's new placement was extremely rigid and gave her far less access to her favorite objects and activities, and her caretakers rarely allowed her mother to visit.
Soon after she moved in they began to subject her to extreme physical and emotional abuse, resulting in both incontinence and constipation resurfacing and causing her to revert to her coping mechanism of silence.
As a result, she was extremely frightened of eating or speaking, and she became extremely withdrawn and almost exclusively relied on sign language for communication.
She quickly started petitioning to have Genie taken out of the home, but Curtiss said that both she and social services had a difficult time contacting John Miner, only succeeding after several months.
In late April , with assistance from David Rigler, Miner removed her from this location. Because of Genie's previous treatment, Miner and David Rigler arranged for her to stay at Children's Hospital for two weeks, where her condition moderately improved.
Through the end of that month into early January Genie lived in a temporary setting, after which authorities put her in another foster home.
She decided to sue Children's Hospital, her therapists, their supervisors, and several of the researchers, including Curtiss, Rigler, James Kent, and Howard Hansen.
Regional media immediately picked up the lawsuit, and members of the research team were shocked when they found out about it. All of the scientists named in the suit were adamant that they never coerced Genie, maintaining that Genie's mother and her lawyers grossly exaggerated the length and nature of their testing, and denied any breach of confidentiality.
It was dismissed by the Superior Court of the State of California ' with prejudice ,' meaning that because it was without substance it can never again be refiled.
Susan Curtiss said that in late December she had been asked if she could be Genie's legal guardian but that, after she met with Genie on January 3, , Genie's mother suddenly stopped allowing her and the rest of the research team to see Genie again, immediately ending all testing and observations.
Without consulting Miner, on March 30 of that year authorities officially transferred guardianship to her mother, who subsequently forbade all of the scientists except Jay Shurley from seeing her or Genie.
Ruch died in following another stroke. From January until the early s, Genie moved through a series of at least four additional foster homes and institutions, some of which subjected her to extreme physical abuse and harassment.
When Rymer published a two-part magazine article on Genie in The New Yorker in April of that year he wrote that she lived in an institution and only saw her mother one weekend every month, with the first edition of his book, entitled Genie: A Scientific Tragedy , stating this as well.
At that time she told him that Genie had recently moved into a more supportive foster home which permitted regular visits, and said that Genie was happy and, although hard to understand, was significantly more verbal.
Several people who worked with Genie, including Curtiss and James Kent, harshly criticized Rymer's works. In this letter, published in mid-June , he responded to what he said were major factual errors in Angier's review and gave his first public account of his involvement in Genie's case.
Rigler wrote that, as of his writing, Genie was doing well living in a small, private facility where her mother regularly visited her. As of , Genie is a ward of the state of California living in an undisclosed location in Los Angeles.
According to the investigator, she was living a simple lifestyle in a small private facility for mentally underdeveloped adults and appeared to be happy, and reportedly only spoke a few words but could still communicate fairly well in sign language.
Genie's is one of the best-known case studies of language acquisition in a child with delayed linguistic development outside of studies on deaf children.
Since the publication of Curtiss' findings, her arguments have become widely accepted in the field of linguistics. Many linguistics books have used Genie's case study as an example to illustrate principles of language acquisition, frequently citing it as support of Chomsky's hypothesis of language being innate to humans and of a modified version of Lenneberg's critical period hypothesis, and her work with Genie provided the impetus for several additional case studies.
As of , no one directly involved in Genie's case has responded to this controversy. The study of Genie's brain aided scientists in refining several existing hypotheses regarding brain lateralization, especially its effect on language development.
In particular, the disparity between Genie's linguistic abilities and her competence in other aspects of human development strongly suggested there was a separation of cognition and language acquisition, a new concept at the time.
In several of their publications, the scientists acknowledged the influence that Jean Marc Gaspard Itard's study of Victor of Aveyron had on their research and testing.
During the grant meetings in May some of the scientists, including Jay Shurley and David Elkind, voiced concern that the prevailing methods of research pursued scientific study at the expense of Genie's well-being and could cause love and attention to be contingent on her language acquisition.
Kent, Howard Hansen, the Riglers, and Curtiss readily acknowledged that it had been extremely difficult to determine the course of the study, but maintained that all disputes during the meetings were impersonal and typical of scientific discourse.
Ruch never stated a motive for her actions, but members of the research team believed they were due to her anger over her foster custody rejection and her perception that Children's Hospital staff influenced the decision.
Several people have also emphasized the lack of distinction between Genie's caretakers and her therapists.
Shurley thought that Ruch would have been the best guardian for Genie, and felt the Riglers gave her adequate care but viewed her as a test subject first.
He argued that this interfered with providing Genie the best possible care and compromised their objectivity, which in turn contributed to the case study's lack of coherence, and both he and Harlan Lane emphasized that making David Rigler a foster parent accelerated this breakdown.
On several occasions, the Riglers maintained that their home had been the best available option for Genie at the time, and said that both they and everyone who worked with her thought she was doing well.
Several books about feral or abused children contain chapters on Genie, and many books on linguistics and psychology also discuss Genie's case at length.
The independent film Mockingbird Don't Sing , released in , is about Genie's case, primarily from the perspective of Susan Curtiss. For legal reasons, all of the names in the film were changed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abused and neglected feral child studied by linguists. The first publicly released picture of Genie, taken in , just after authorities took control of her care at the age of Arcadia, California , U.
Main article: Linguistic development of Genie. Greater Los Angeles portal Biography portal. Years after the case study on Genie had ended, when somebody asked Susan Curtiss why they had not done so, Curtiss said she and the other scientists felt Lovaas' methods of aversion therapy would have unduly limited Genie's freedom and kept her from getting to the nurturing environment doctors and scientists sought for her.
Autism: A Social and Medical History. Archived from the original on February 14, Retrieved May 24, ABC News.
Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved March 4, Season Episode 2. March 4, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved February 12, Brain and Language.
Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved June 6, Journal of Applied Linguistics. Archived PDF from the original on May 29, Retrieved April 30, Archived from the original on September 14, The Guardian.
Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved September 14, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. Archived from the original on March 23, Retrieved September 1, Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved May 26, Body Shock.
Season 1.During Genie's stay, Butler had the man she Ergebnis Division dating move in with her, believing that authorities would view her pending foster application more favorably if she offered a two-parent home. Robert Martin. Gaiman's magical, shape-shifting jinn is fictional, but belief in genies is widespread. From January until the early s, Genie moved through a series of at least four additional foster homes and institutions, some of which subjected her to extreme physical abuse and harassment. I think my Real Genie Page is stuck on a day. By contrast, Genie performed significantly below average and showed much slower progress on all tests measuring predominantly left-hemisphere tasks. Honolulu, HI: Academic Press. Get Merkur Slot answers by asking now. In particular, scientists have compared Genie to Victor of Aveyrona Cfd Erfahrungen French child who was also the subject of a case study in delayed psychological Peter Green Fahrrad Braunschweig and late language acquisition.